Development status and prospects of domestic and foreign oil and gas pipelines
An important driving factor for the development of oil and gas pipelines is the imbalance in the production and demand of oil and gas resources in various regions. Since the development of the oil and gas industry, most countries have matured internal resource development, and the flow of oil and gas resources from rich production areas to poor production areas has become inevitable. In recent years, the planning and construction of many large-scale transnational pipelines have represented this trend of pipeline development, and pipelines have played an indispensable role in energy deployment for the development of the global economy.
1. Production and consumption of global oil and gas resources
In 2012, the total global crude oil production was 41.189×108 t, and the trade volume was 27.291×108 t, which accounted for 66.3% of the total output. The total output of natural gas is 33 639×108 m3, the pipeline trade volume is 7 055×108 m3, accounting for 21% of the total output; the LNG trade volume is 3 279×108 m3, accounting for 9.7% of the total output. Because the energy supply and demand in various regions are extremely imbalanced, and pipeline transportation is the best way to realize the long-distance transfer of large amounts of oil and gas resources, the development of pipelines has become inevitable.
2 Current status of global oil and gas pipelines and large-scale transnational pipelines
At present, there are about 3,500 oil and gas pipelines in service in the world. The total length of crude oil pipelines is about 33×104 km, the total length of refined oil pipelines is about 26×104 km, and the total length of natural gas pipelines is about 124×104 km. The country with the longest pipeline length is the United States. The top 5 countries in terms of total length of crude oil pipelines are: the United States 84,000 km, Russia 70,000 km, Canada 36,000 km, China 19,000 km, Libya 10,000 km, and other countries’ crude oil pipeline lengths totaling approximately 130,000 km. The top 5 countries in terms of total product pipeline length are: the United States 100,000 km, Russia 20,000 km, China 20,000 km, India 17,000 km, Canada 15,000 km, and other countries’ product pipeline lengths totaling approximately 90,000 km . The top five countries in terms of total length of natural gas pipelines are: the United States 420,000 km, Russia 190,000 km, Canada 60,000 km, China 48,000 km, Ukraine 40,000 km, and the total length of natural gas main pipelines in other countries is approximately 490,000. km.
3. China's oil and gas pipeline construction
The development of China's pipeline industry has experienced three construction climaxes. The first construction climax was in the 1970s. With the development of large eastern oil fields such as Daqing, Liaohe and Shengli, China built an eastern oil pipeline network connecting Northeast, North China and East China. The second construction climax was in the 1980s and 1990s. With the development of western oil and gas fields in Xinjiang, Tarim, Tuha, Sichuan and Changqing, China built long-distance oil and gas pipelines connecting oil and gas fields and processing companies in the western region. Gas pipeline network. At present, with the further development of oil and gas fields in eastern and western China and the introduction of foreign oil and gas resources, especially the rapid development of the natural gas industry, China's oil and gas pipeline construction has entered the third climax, and the focus of the third climax will be on foreign resources. The rapid development of the introduction and utilization of natural gas started.
At present, China's self-produced oil and natural gas are far from being able to meet consumer demand. In 2012, China imported 2.7×108 t of crude oil, with a foreign dependence rate of 56%, and imported natural gas of 425×108 m3, with a foreign dependence rate of 29%. In consideration of national energy security, four major oil and gas import channels have been planned in the northwest, northeast, southwest and offshore in recent years, and have been gradually implemented.
At present, the Northeast, Northwest, and Southwest oil and gas import channels have basically been established, and the total capacity of the China-Kazakhstan, China-Russia and China-Myanmar pipelines will reach 8 000×104 t. Rosneft also agreed to export part of West Siberian crude oil to China, which will be transported through the Northwest Passage. Therefore, several strategic channels in the future will play an increasingly important role in safeguarding energy imports.